Combine 1 Tbsp. adobe sauce, 1 Tbsp. lime juice, chili powder, cumin, 1/2 tsp. salt, and 2 Tbsp. water in a small bowl; set aside.
Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high. Add tempeh; cook 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, until golden brown. Add adobe mixture; cook 2 minutes, stirring often to fully coat tempeh. Remove from heat.
Prepare dressing by combining remaining 2 tsp. adobe sauce, 2 tsp. lime juice, tahini, sugar, garlic powder, 1/4 tsp. salt, and 2 Tbsp. water in a bowl; stir with a whisk. Set aside.
Combine pinto beans, corn, cilantro, remaining 1 Tbsp. lime juice, and 1/4 tsp. salt in a large bowl; toss to combine.
Prepare salads by dividing romaine, cabbage, and tomatoes evenly among 4 bowls. Top evenly with pinto bean mixture, braised tempeh crumbles, and avocado slices. Drizzle with chipotle-tahini dressing.