In a large measuring glass or bowl, combine vegetable broth, soy sauce, tahini, vinegar, and chili garlic sauce; stir with a whisk. Set aside. Start heating a pot of salted water over medium-high in preparation of cooking the noodles.
Heat 2 Tbsp. of the oil in a large skillet over medium. Once hot, add tofu and cook 8 to 10 minutes, turning to brown all sides, until golden. Season with 1/4 tsp. salt, and transfer to a plate.
Add remaining 1 Tbsp. oil to pan, along with mushrooms. Cook 5 minutes, until mushrooms start to soften. Add two-thirds of chopped green onion (reserve remaining for garnish) and shallots; season with remaining 1/4 tsp. salt, and cook 3 more minutes. Add sauce to pan and cook 2 minutes, until slightly thickened. Cover pan and turn off heat.
Once the water in your soup pot comes to a low boil, add ramen and cook according to package instructions (most need 3 to 4 minutes). Drain, and transfer noodles to pan with vegetables and sauce. Add tofu back to pan and use a set of tongs to continuously toss until sauce thoroughly coats noodles. Garnish with remaining green onion and sesame seeds.
Reheat leftovers in the microwave, or in a medium skillet over medium heat. If needed, add another splash of broth to help rehydrate the sauce.