In a large measuring glass or bowl, combine vegetable broth, soy sauce, tahini, vinegar, and chili garlic sauce; stir with a whisk. Set aside. Start heating a pot of salted water over medium-high in preparation of cooking the noodles.
Heat 2 Tbsp. of the oil in a large skillet over medium. Once hot, add tofu and season with salt. Cook 6 to 7 minutes, turning to brown all sides, until golden. Transfer to a plate.
Add remaining 1 Tbsp. oil to pan, along with mushrooms. While mushrooms start cooking, roughly chop about two-thirds of the green onions (whites and greens). Add green onion and shallots to pan with mushrooms; cook until all vegetables soften (about 6 minutes total). Add sauce to pan and cook 2 minutes, until slightly thickened. Cover pan and turn off heat.
Once the water in your soup pot comes to a low boil, add ramen and cook according to package instructions (most need about 4 minutes). Drain, and transfer noodles to pan with vegetables. Add tofu back to pan and use a set of tongs to continuously toss until sauce thoroughly coats noodles. Finely chop remaining one third of green onions and use for garnish. Sprinkle sesame seeds overtop.